Have you also heard of the Am ha aretz? But, for them to be superior, somebody had to be inferior. But their pathetic need for approval turned cruel. They viewed those who were physically sick or deformed as cursed by God for their sin.
Posted by xscot mcknight In this series of posts on Jesus and women, there will be a comprehensive survey of what we know about women at the time of Jesus. Our big question is this: What did Jesus and the early churches think of women and how were they incorporated into ministry?
To answer this question we need to look at the evidence from the ancient world, which is the focus of this series. There is no attempt to be complete here, and there is only a short bibliography at the end of this post.
This series is based on a handout I sometimes give to my Jesus of Nazareth students. And, what have the scholars been saying about Jewish women at the time of Jesus? Answers to both of these questions have a profound impact on what Christians say today about women and ministry.
How do we approach the evidence from the ancient world? First, we need to respect the diversity of Judaism for it was a heterogeneous society and in each sector different understandings of women emerged.
We cannot pretend that what one group thought or practiced another group also thought or practiced. Here are some variations to keep in mind: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, poor vs. In addition, the Diaspora those living outside the Land of Israel evidence about women reveals another set of variations.
Second, we need to be aware of our sources: What we have is stuff that comes to us from a variety of sources, much of it from upper class males.
Third, there are various kinds of evidence. Many of the statements about women are in halakhic statements legal statements by rabbis but which, though stated has binding, are not necessarily a reflection of reality and in haggadic accounts stories illustrative of halakhic statements but which frequently form tension with other halakhic material.
The haggadic material frequently divulges a more realistic portrait of women. What this means is this: In fact, it is highly likely that this was not the case and that such rulings were often given to counter behavior that was not liked.
Fourth, we need to remind ourselves of this: Fifth, we have a special problem when it comes to rabbinic literature. Regardless of how much information can be found germane to this topic, rabbinic literature shaped by two orientations that distort the realities of first century Galilean Jewish life: Hence, while incidental details emerge of value, the concerns are always legal.
This legal emphasis must not be equated with the emphases of real social life. What has been said about women at the time of Jesus? First, some Jewish scholars have debated whether the Bible Christian Old Testament or the rabbinic sources e.
Second, some Christian scholars have consistently exploited the Jewish sources as a foil to Jesus and the NT: Much of the claims made here are tendentious and unhistorical. It is simply untrue that Jewish men were mean-spirited and that Jesus and the early Christians set women free.
Third, feminist scholars tend to read the ancient sources, both Jewish and Christian, with a hermeneutic of suspicion: Christian feminists align themselves consistently with the second view but have had a different agenda.
Some Jewish feminists have argued that Christian feminists are anti-Semitic or anti-Judaism see esp. See also Rosenblatt, Fourth, historical Jesus scholars, mostly Christian, have argued consistently that Jesus liberated the Jewish woman from oppressive Jewish laws. Bibliography and Abbreviations All Jewish sources can be found in the library in English translation; for rabbinic sources, I recommend the translations of Jacob Neusner whenever available.
The easiest source to use is the Babylonian Talmud. Rachel Biale, Women and Jewish Law: University of North Carolina Press, Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus Philadelphia: Ingrid Rosa Kitzberger, editor, Transformative Encounters: Kitzberger, Transformative Enounters, Cambridge University Press, See also Aaron Oppenheimer, The `Am Ha-aretz: A Study in the Social History of the Jewish People in the Hellenistic-Roman Period (Leiden: E.
Brill, ). 13 With certain qualifications, the term hasid may be taken as an early designation for the Pharisee; see. Learn encountering new testament with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of encountering new testament flashcards on Quizlet.
In John and Revelation Jesus is referred to as the Word (Greek logos). Hence, Christians often speak of Jesus as the Logos or the Word of God. Just as human words express the innermost depths of one's heart and mind, so Jesus is the perfect expression of what God is really like.
The Jesus movement was an Evangelical Christian movement beginning on the West Coast of the United States in the late s and early s and spreading primarily throughout North America, Europe, and Central America, before subsiding by the late s. But the description of the revelation of the Jesus Movements especially the Am- ha- aretz in the gospels range from a sense of the fellowship and atonement, to a new life of solidarity in the spirit and the new experiences of peace and forgiveness.
The person of Jesus Christ is the paradigm for the life of the Christian community and of the individual members of the community.
Then we will discuss more by looking up to the topic called Jesus Movement: The am-ha-aretz arts of resistance for Justice and Humanhood. 1. Definition of the Terms: Am-ha-aretz: The word Am-ha-aretz is a Hebrew term combining of two words like ‘am’ (עם) and ‘eretz’(ארץ), which means people and earth/land respectively.