Unit3 Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: Identify some of the major events and milestones in the history of the Aztec and Inca Empires.
May 15, Getty Images Across Mesoamerica today, you can find sprawling ancient cities with towering pyramids, ballcourts, saunas, monumental sculptures, and enigmatic hieroglyphs—all thanks to the Maya.
Here are 15 things you might not know about this ancient civilization. It had been hidden under what was believed to be a natural hill. Over years ago, the Olmecs of Mesoamerica became probably the first to realize that with some work you could consume chocolate, but the Maya turned it into an art form.
Archaeological evidence suggests the Maya were processing cacao at least years ago; the chemical signatures of cacao have been found in Maya ceramic vessels in Guatemala that date back to BCE.
The Maya would mix cacao with water, honey, chili peppers, cornmeal, and other ingredients to make a foamy, spicy drink.
Mayan writing, which dates to the late Preclassic period BCE to CEis preserved on buildings, stone monuments, rare books, and pottery. While words in the English language are formed with combinations of 26 letters, written Mayan words are formed from various combinations of more than hieroglyphseach representing a syllable.
The system is thought to be the most sophisticated of its kind in Mesoamerica. Only in the last few decades have Mayanists gained the ability to read most of the glyphs.
Tatiana Proskouriakoff, a Siberia-born American, trained to be an architect. Despite her lack of formal academic training, Proskouriakoff eventually became a Mayanist in her own right. The Maya wrote books in their elaborate hieroglyphic script on long strips of durable paper made from the inner bark of fig trees.
But there are just three Maya codices that survive today: Many more Maya books fell victim to the damp conditions of Mesoamerica—or the arrival of Europeans who purposefully destroyed Maya texts.
Diego de Landa, a Franciscan friar from Spain who arrived in Yucatan in the s, described one such scene: There was a lot of talk in certain paranoid corners of the Internet that doomsdayas predicted by the Maya calendar, would come on December 21, The date came and went and the apocalypse never materialized, but any Mayanist could have told you that you had nothing to worry about.
This calendar was impressive because it used zero as a placeholder—one of the earliest uses of zero as a mathematical concept in history. And that was only one of the calendars the Maya used.
The Maya were not content with simply donning clothes and makeup to make themselves beautiful. In childhood, males and females alike had their heads bound to artificially deform their skulls into an elongated shape, which probably signified their social status.
The Maya also drilled holes into their front teeth and inlaid them with jade, pyrite, hematite or turquoise. They basically invented the grill. For the Maya, consuming hallucinogens and intoxicants were the best way to talk to spirits. But to get inebriated more quickly, and perhaps to avoid vomiting, they may have administered alcohol and psychoactives through the rectal route.
There are a lot of scenes on Maya pottery depicting enemas in a ritual context. But the cheerful color was also used in human sacrifice.
When the Maya wanted to please the rain god, they painted human sacrifices blue and cut their hearts out on stone altars or threw them down wells. The Maya built sauna-like structures out of stone or adobe that were used for health purposes and ritual cleansing.
The earliest known sweatbath was uncovered at Cuelloin northern Belize. At years old, it predates the famous baths of the Roman civilization. Ballcourts take up prominent real estate at Maya cities like Chichen-Itza in Mexico.
This is where the Maya staged a game known as pitz.
Players would try to pass a heavy rubber ball about the size of a soccer ball without using their hands while wearing equipment to protect their ribs, knees and arms. The ultimate goal was to get the ball through a very high stone hoop. According to the Maya creation story in their epic text known as Popol Vuh, life on earth became possible only after two brother deities defeated the supernatural lords of the underworld in a ball game.
Now a symbol of American Thanksgiving, turkeys may have first been domesticated by the Maya. Mexican turkey bones dating to the Preclassic Maya period were discovered at the archaeological site of El Mirador in Guatemala. The civilization was really hitting its stride at the peak of the Classic Maya period to CE.
But things started to go south in the 8th and 9th centuries. Maya cities in the southern lowlands that once boasted populations up to 70, people were abandoned.Digging for the Truth: MACHU PICCHU: Lost City of the Inca.
PROGRAMME LENGTH 1 hour In this program Josh Bernstein takes us to the most. Machu Picchu was used for religious observance, astronomical observation, a royal retreat, and a secret ceremonial city.
Therefore, I have partially proved my thesis. I said that Machu Picchu was created by the Inca culture for religious observance. Research Paper on Mayan Civilization The Maya Introduction All remnants of the distant past are romantic, but ancient Maya civilization has a special fascination - Research Paper on Maya Civilization introduction.
It is a “lost” civilization, whose secrets lie deep in the mysterious tropical forest. The style of Maya architecture and sculpture seems alien and. Essay about Aztec Calendar Stone; Essay about Aztec Calendar Stone. Words: There may have been even more visible eclipses seen by the Aztecs that have not been discovered because they were lost, or destroyed, or even confused with other natural events (Aveni, Calnek).
Mayan and Inca"), were still present and the simple act of. My best experience was in South America when Itraveled through Chile and Peru.
The most fascinatingexperience was in the city of Machu Picchu. Once the home ofthe Inca civilization, this magnificent location became aphenomenon to me. There are only two ways to get to thecity of Machu Picchu. Aug 28, · China Dynasties of Power - Lost Ancient Civilizations.
Inca: Secrets of the Ancestors - Duration: LOST ANCIENT CIVILIZATION.