The Act ensures that public bodies are more accountable and open to the public. The Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act promotes the general principles that public body information should be available to the public and personal information respecting individuals held by government should not be improperly disclosed. A "record" by definition in the Act includes "books, documents, maps, drawings, photographs, letters, vouchers, papers, and any other thing on which information is recorded or stored by graphic, electronic, mechanical or other means, but does not include a computer program or any other mechanism that produces records". The Act also provides an appeal procedure involving an independent Information and Privacy Commissioner.
Warren and Louis Brandeis wrote The Right to Privacyan article in which they argued for the "right to be let alone", using that phrase as a definition of privacy.
Nevertheless, in the era of big datacontrol over information is under pressure. Solitude is a physical separation from others. Physical barriers, such as walls and doors, prevent others from accessing and experiencing the individual.
Richard Posner said that privacy is the right of people to "conceal information about themselves that others might use to their disadvantage". Jeffrey Reiman defined privacy in terms of a recognition of one's ownership of his or her physical and mental reality and a moral right to his or her self-determination.
According to Joseph Kufer, an autonomous self-concept entails a conception of oneself as a "purposeful, self-determining, responsible agent" and an awareness of one's capacity to control the boundary between self and other—that is, to control who can access and experience him or her and to what extent.
Privacy barriers, in particular, are instrumental in this process. According to Irwin Altman, such barriers "define and limit the boundaries of the self" and thus "serve to help define [the self]. Hyman Gross suggested that, without privacy—solitude, anonymity, and temporary releases from social roles—individuals would be unable to freely express themselves and to engage in self-discovery and self-criticism.
Personal privacy[ edit ] Most people have a strong sense of privacy in relation to the exposure of their body to others. This is an aspect of personal modesty. A person will go to extreme lengths to protect this personal modesty, the main way being the wearing of clothes. Other ways include erection of wallsfencesscreens, use of cathedral glasspartitions, by maintaining a distance, beside other ways.
People who go to those lengths expect that their privacy will be respected by others. At the same time, people are prepared to expose themselves in acts of physical intimacybut these are confined to exposure in circumstances and of persons of their choosing.
Even a discussion of those circumstances is regarded as intrusive and typically unwelcome. Physical privacy could be defined as preventing "intrusions into one's physical space or solitude. Preventing intimate acts or hiding one's body from others for the purpose of modesty ; apart from being dressed this can be achieved by wallsfencesprivacy screens, cathedral glasspartitions between urinalsby being far away from others, on a bed by a bed sheet or a blanketwhen changing clothes by a toweletc.
Fourth Amendmentwhich guarantees "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures". There may also be concerns about safety, if for example one is wary of becoming the victim of crime or stalking.
Information privacy Information or data privacy refers to the evolving relationship between technology and the legal right to, or public expectation of, privacy in the collection and sharing of data about one's self. Privacy concerns exist wherever uniquely identifiable data relating to a person or persons are collected and stored, in digital form or otherwise.
In some cases these concerns refer to how data are collected, stored, and associated. In other cases the issue is who is given access to information. Various types of personal information are often associated with privacy concerns. Information plays an important role in the decision-action process, which can lead to problems in terms of privacy and availability.
First, it allows people to see all the options and alternatives available. Secondly, it allows people to choose which of the options would be best for a certain situation.
An information landscape consists of the information, its location in the so-called network, as well as its availability, awareness, and usability.
Yet the set-up of the information landscape means that information that is available in one place may not be available somewhere else.
This can lead to a privacy situation that leads to questions regarding which people have the power to access and use certain information, who should have that power, and what provisions govern it.The Act should only be used by the public in cases where information is not available through the usual channels.
To make a formal Freedom of Information request you must complete an Access/Correction Request Form and remit a compulsory $ application fee payment. Please pay careful attention to the detailed instructions on the form when completing.
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child; Americans for a Society Free from Age Restrictions; Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission. This archived statute consolidation is current to May 30, and includes changes enacted and in force by that date. For the most current information, click here.
This Act has "Not in Force" sections. The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) focuses public attention on emerging civil liberties, privacy, First Amendment issues and works to promote the Public. This Act is current to October 31, See the Tables of Legislative Changes for this Act’s legislative history, including any changes not in force.
Members of the Public. Information and services for people who wish to learn more about FIPPA.