Table of Contents Overview Why do men behave justly? Is it because they fear societal punishment? Are they trembling before notions of divine retribution?
In effect, Plato believes that the repression of individual freedom results in equal freedom for the society as a whole. This is contrasted to Mill, whose view is that, excluding children, the individual is sovereign over himself, his body and his mind.
Unless it is known that one is inflicting harm upon another, interference is not justified.
Mill has three liberties that are the hallmark of a free society- the first is the freedom of thoughts and sentiment on all subjects, including freedom of expression and publication. The third and final liberty necessary for a free society is the freedom of individuals to unite as long as the resulting union does not lead to others being harmed as a result.
Mill forbids coercion and deception within the union, as he believes it is unjustified to have a direct negative impact on the utility of others this does not involve doing something which someone else does not agree with.
Mill has concerns over the limits of which power can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. Safeguards are necessary to ensure that the majority does not suppress the minority.
Plato believes that false opinions could be dangerous to society, whereas Mill would say they were necessary in order to help obtain the truth, something that we as humans so desperately strive to obtain. Plato believes that satisfying our desires is something scarcely worth caring about, whereas Mill would encourage us to do so as long as it brings utility rather than harm.
A combination of views, questions and opinions are better than one view or opinion that is decided to be true, and not questioned. Mill would argue that this is in a sense brainwashing the individuals to believe that they are happy and that they are fulfilling desires, when in fact they are only fulfilling what the Philosopher Kings have told them they desire.
Plato believes in critical freedom, which the Kallipolis is intended to provide to its members as much as their nature permits, Mill however believes in actual freedom in which all is permitted but harm The Harm Principle. Otherwise Mill states that foolish actions do not deserve penalties, and that mature individuals should be left to develop and coagulate their own views and act on their own impulses.
All society can do is help educate its members as to what is moral and immoral before they reach the state of maturity and therefore the freedom they have a right to. The simile of the cave is used to show how politicians will conceal the truth from the people represented by the prisoners.
The people are ignorant and do not possess the knowledge that they deserve.
The prisoners are bound and only have a view of the wall in front of them, there is a fire behind them, between them and the wall is nothing.
All that the prisoners can see are shadows of themselves, and of the objects behind them. The prisoners naively believe that the shadows are real as they have nothing else upon which to base their knowledge.
One of the prisoners manages to escape from the cave, and in the light of the sun sees the real world for the first time.
He realises that all this time he was deceived by shadows. This man, if according to Plato is in possession of the capacity for knowledge and wisdom will feel it is his duty to go back to the cave, release his fellow prisoners and enlighten them.
The other prisoners are hard to persuade however, as his exposure to the sunlight renders him unable to see the shadows as clearly as before, and so the prisoners just think that he is less intelligent than when he was trapped.
Plato justifies the Philosopher Kings lying to the people in order to protect them. Plato argues the necessity of a structured organised society separate from the outside world in which every individual reaches their maximum potential and has a fundamental part to play in contributing all they can to their community as a whole.
Education is available to all members of the Kallipolis regardless of gender. Mill and Plato have different styles of communicating their points, Mill expresses his ideas in the form of discursive arguments, Plato however expresses his ideas in the form of dialogue, something which Mill praises Plato for regardless of their conflicting conclusions.
These three different classes will have very different experiences of life, and which one they will lead depends on their capacity for knowledge. The three classes experience different upbringings, and receive different levels of education.
The Producers are in effect not free, but rather slaves to their senior ranking class, the Guardians. The Producers are thought to be the least intelligent mass of the population, and they are therefore expected to trust and believe their rulers.
This means that personal desires are not as important as the overall functioning of the community, which is immaculately ruled by the Philosopher Kings who have the ability to learn and retain the knowledge leaded to rule and guide the citizens of the Kallipolis.
Mill considers freedoms of opinion and of actions necessary, and his Harm Principle was made to help protect other individuals from being hurt. Mill prioritises the freedom of thought and expression; he believes that unless we push an argument to its absolute limit, then we cannot claim to fully understand it.
Mill says that we must listen to everyone, even those that offend us, or those who we believe to be irrelevant. If they speak out and are found to be wrong, then they have simply helped the mass come closer to the truth by falsely opposing it.
It works on the basis of keeping the people satisfied rather than truly doing what is best for them according to Plato.Compare, contrast and evaluate Plato and Mill on the relationship between individual and society Plato was born around BC, he lived for the most part of his life in Athens, and had much to say about Athenian democracy.
If, in the Republic, the goodness of the individual soul is explained in terms of its being a smaller copy of a harmonious society, in the Timaeus, Plato goes for a larger model. The universe now supplies the ‘large’ text for deciphering the nature of the human soul.
Individual virtue pertains to the individual himself, and concerns the acts that the individual does, and concerns the individual’s soul. For Socrates, the relationship between individual and collective.
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for . Plato’s strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice.
In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. This essay will compare and contrast Aristotle and Plato discussions of morality and justice and determine which philosophy best addresses the consequences of human vulnerability.
In general, morality is the principles concerning the distinction between right or wrong or good and bad behavior.