The calligrapher's work lies in search of the absolute; his aim is to penetrate the sense of truth in an infinite movement so as to go beyond the existing world and thus achieve union with God. Sacred and Secular Writings". Catalog of an exhibition held at the Musee d'art et d'histoire, Geneva and other locationsp.
The earliest form of written language is thought to originate from the Semitic countries. The word Semitic comes from the name Shem, named in Genesis 6: While pieces of the puzzle have yet to fall in place, there appears to be an evolution of the alphabet through the ages.
It is believed that languages spread through trade, conquering tribes, and migration. He purchased land at Hebron in Canaan to bury his wife Sara Genesis The cuneiform or wedge-shaped script of the ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia is dated circa BC.
Cuneiform script was inscribed into wet clay which hardened into tablets. The hieroglyphic script of Egypt is dated circa BC, and is largely pictorial in nature with over symbols written on papyrus.
Hieratic was a cursive form of hieroglyphics developed about the same time for priestly writings. Byblos, Phoenicia now Lebanon was known as Gebal in ancient times, as recorded in Joshua While the script suggests Egyptian influence, the symbols present syllables rather than pictures, and is likely a precursor of the Phoenician alphabet.
The Byblos writings were a linear and horizontal script and written nabataean writing a letter right to left as the Phoenician alphabet. A bronze spatula found at the site bears two inscriptions, on one side Phoenician letters and on the other side the Proto-Byblian script.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols in which each character represents a syllable, for example, a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound.
The inscription on the tomb was written in the Phoenician script of Byblos and to date is the earliest witness of considerable length to the Phoenician alphabet.
Families began to inhabit the land around Byblos about BC. The Phoenicians were a peaceful, seafaring people expert in navigation and trade, and, beginning around BC, were the first to explore the Mediterranean Sea in boats made of cedar.
Protected by the mountains of Lebanon from warring nations, they were able to differentiate from their Canaanite neighbors and form a distinct culture and society, although they still called themselves Canaanites!
Byblos, Tyre BCand Sidon became main centers of commerce. Between the ninth and sixth centuries BC, the naval proficiency of the Phoenician mariners established the first trading system to encompass the entire Mediterranean from their homeland, in what is now Lebanon, to their colonies in Cyprus, Carthage, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Tangier, and through the Straits of Gibraltar to Cadiz on the Atlantic coast of Spain and Lixus on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.
It was the Phoenician alphabet that was widely received and readily adapted in Greece and throughout the Mediterranean world, as it was only 22 letters based on sound, as opposed to the myriad of symbols in cuneiform and hieroglyphics prevalent at the time. The words phonic and phonetic have the same root as the word Phoenicia.
The word Biblewhich means "the book," is derived from the city of Byblos, which was a trading center for papyrus, the writing material for early books. The legend of the Phoenix, the bird consumed by fire only to regenerate, is based upon the Phoenician people, whose land was occupied and towns destroyed many times by warlike peoples, only to regenerate time and again.
In the fifth century BC, Herodotus of Greece, the Father of Historical Studies, was the one that named the seafarers the Phoenicians, the name that has stayed with them to this day. The Romans spelled it phoenix! A major contribution of Greek culture was the addition of vowels to the development of our alphabet.
Greek is written from left to right as Latin, the Romance and English languages. There were three dialects to classical Greek, Doric, Aeolic, and Ionic of which Attic is a derivation. Alexander the Great, who was tutored by Aristotle, spoke Attic Greek and swept through the Middle East in BC and founded the city of Alexandria, Egypt, spreading the Greek language throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Thus began the Hellenistic Age. Greek in the Holy Land was heavily interpenetrated by native Semitic languages, such as Aramaic and Hebrew. The Codex Sinaiticus from St.Aug 12, · Ancient Writing.
Fibulas and Clothing. Figures and Statues. Jewelry. Oil Lamps.
Scarabs. Toiletries and Grooming. Pertaining to our earlier discussion concerning the meaning of this letter, I would like to offer a synopsis of the arguments, Nabataean monumental inscriptions (excluding graffiti) never mention anyone by name.
Arabic calligraphy was originally a tool for communication, but with time, it began to be used in architecture, decoration and coin design.
Its evolution into these major roles was a reflection of the early Muslims’ need to avoid, as their beliefs required, figures and pictorials that were used as idols before Islam was established in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי , alefbet ʿIvri), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language.
As with other abjads, the letters all represent consonants; a few matres lectionis are . Dec 14, · Then, as the Nabataean alphabet became the modern Arabic one, the vertical line below swept to the left (و), giving the modern letter its resemblance to our number 9 and lowercase letter [g] while it still acts like a [w].
Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean A critical guide to electronic resources and has a style that appears archaic. Compared to the other varieties of Thamudic scripts, D is characterised by the letter s² in the shape of a radiated sun and not of a zigzag line.
Hayajneh, Hani, Ancient North Arabian–Nabataean bilingual.