Memory is the term given to the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information. Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past, we cannot operate in the present or think about the future. We would not be able to remember what we did yesterday, what we have done today or what we plan to do tomorrow.
There are two prominent theories as to how recognition memory operates. One theory proposes that there are two distinct processes involved in the recognition of a stimulus, called recollection and familiarity1.
Another theory, however, denies the independence of the two processes within recognition memory. In this theory, familiarity is primarily thought of as a weak memory, whereas recollection is considered to be a type of strong memory2.
This paper aims to take a closer look at both theories by exploring evidence that supports each one. A deeper evaluation of the dual process model and single process model will be made in order to explore all aspects of recognition memory. The paper will provide the reader with a background sufficient for understanding all aspects that are currently proposed about recognition memory.
In this particular theory, recollection is the process that recovers specific details about an event, whereas familiarity involves a sense of the experience but lacks details. Recollection and familiarity can be displayed as two separate processes with evidence from recognition tests, receiver operating characteristics ROC curves, amnesic patients, and fMRI studies.
Data supports that recollection and familiarity occur in two separate areas of the brain and that their usage and function are different; depending on the task at hand, each brain region may be recruited or manipulated differently. According to the proposal, both are housed within the medial temporal lobe MTL structures but recollection is dependent on the hippocampus, and familiarity relies on the perirhinal cortex1.
Evidence from Recognition Tests One way in which recollection and familiarity differ is in the application and availability of the processes.
Familiarity typically becomes available more quickly than recollection and is usually the first process that is engaged in recognizing a stimulus1. Subjects do very well in discriminating between two items to determine which one was previously encountered and which one was not.
Yet, when subjects need to remember much more details in order to discriminate between the two objects i. The amount of time allotted to an individual who is recognizing a stimulus affects performance.
In one experiment, participants were advised to reject highly familiar items4. Participants at first accept the highly familiar items but then begin to reject as time goes on. This illustrates the distinction between familiarity and recollection.
At first recognition memory employs familiarity, which is a rapid, readily available process used for fast responses and then switches to recollection, which is a much slower process that allows for correct responses when given longer time1.
Thus, at first, those participants used familiarity and accepted the items, which was an incorrect response; recollection was employed only after familiarity, allowing for a correct response of rejected items.
The shape of ROC can thereby support the existence of two processes.
Since recollection supports high-confidence responses, a measurement of recollection can be obtained by the asymmetry of the ROC curve; in contrast, familiarity can be measured by the degree of curvilinearity5.
In normal rats, the ROC curve has both an asymmetrical and curvilinear aspect to it, representing the fact that the rats use both recollection and familiarity in recognition.
In rats with hippocampal damage, there is a loss of the asymmetry, which suggests that recollection represented by asymmetry is supported by the hippocampus.
Since the curvilinear portion of the curve is still intact, familiarity appears not to be affected by hippocampal damage6.
It is evident that this deficit in recollection is not due to the loss of memory strength, because an increase of delay which causes a weakened memory leads to a loss of curvilinearity and retention of recollection1. The dual process model but not the single process model can readily explain the data from another study.
In this experiment rats were trained using the ROC paradigm. Rats that had hippocampal lesions produced an ROC curve without asymmetry but maintained the curvilinear aspect of it7. This means that rats with lesions to the hippocampus lost recollection processes but kept the process of familiarity.
In contrast, control subjects that had an intact hippocampus primarily relied on recollection, producing a more asymmetrical curve7.Initially proposed in by Atkinson and Shiffrin, this theory outlines three separate stages of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Sensory Memory Sensory memory is the earliest stage of memory. Unitary theories of memory are hypotheses that attempt to unify mechanisms of short-term and long-term memory. James Nairne proposed the first unitary theory, which criticized Alan Baddeley's working memory model,  which is the dominant theory of the functions of short-term memory.
Memory Psychology Memory Psychology. Theories of memory, how we remember, forgetting and techniques to help to improve your memory: Memory Like A Goldfish?
Working Memory Model. A theory on how our memory 'works' to remember things in . The Atkinson–Shiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model or modal model) is a model of memory proposed in by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin.
The model asserts that human memory has three separate components. Baddeley and Hitch developed another model of short-term memory which is called working torosgazete.com distinction between short-term memory and working memory is that short-term memory is frequently used interchangeably with working memory however the two of them should be used separately.
December 12, Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.
Two Theories for Memory: The Multi-Store Memory Model: Sensory Stores Information directly received from sensory input, i.e. sight/torosgazete.comion determines which parts are transferred to Short Term Storage .