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This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.
This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.
Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information.
Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. One legitimate way when accompanied by accurate documentation to borrow from a source.
A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. Record the source including the page on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. Some examples to compare The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper.
Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level.
Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim Lester Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper Lester Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper.
So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
A note about plagiarism: This example has been classed as plagiarism, in part, because of its failure to deploy any citation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in the academic world.James D Lester Writing Research Papers James d lester writing research papers E 20th Street zip get creative writing on linguistics as soon as possible bd online book review architecture of.
Dr. James D. Lester, Jr. brings over thirty-five years of experience as a classroom English teacher to the 16th Edition of Writing Research Papers. Always aware of the varied and ever-changing trends in research styles, this latest version marks the 50th anniversary of the text.
Dr. Lester received his Ph.D. in English Education from Georgia. The aim of the Writing Seminar is to introduce students to argumentative writing as a process of inquiry and discovery, and as a medium for the effective communication of ideas.
Effective writing begins, however, with effective reading.
Thus, the course will also focus on the identification and. Plagiarism is when students knowingly present another person’s language or ideas (or paper) as if it was their own work.
Plagiarism includes using the words, ideas, answers, or works of another writer without providing clear acknowledgement of the original author and accurate citation. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. Guide to Writing a Research Paper This booklet has been adapted from: Mulderig, Gerald P.
The Heath Guide to Writing the Research Paper. Lexington, Mass: Heath, Print. Additional information for this booklet was obtained from: Lester, James D. and Lester, James D., Jr. Principles of Writing Research Papers. New York, Pearson Education, .
Writing research papers can be challenging. Knowing how to: take notes and organize your ideas; effectively use writing and grammar resources; construct an annotated bibliography, and; complete a literature review; Principles of Writing Research Papers by James D.
Lester Call Number: LBL ISBN: