What were Alexander II motives for reform? Disru…pted needed trade through Black Sea. Impediment to economic flourishing.
However, his reforms did not go so smoothly and many attempts to take his life were made throughout his reign. Unfortunately he was assassinated before he completed his reforms in March The abolition of serfdom was one of the first reforms made by Alexander II. Serfdom was causing Russia to be left behind while the more modern European countries were industrializing, it prevented the free flow of labor and reduced the incentive for mechanizing as they was an abundance of labor that was controlled by the land owner.
When the serfs were freed, they were allowed to marry, own property, and set up businesses.
After it was serfdom was abolished the privately owned serfs received a plot of land from their landowner that they could use to build their homes and plant crops.
When the serfs received this land they were expected to pay redemption taxes to the State, and when these taxes were fully paid the serf was recognized as the legal owner of their land.
Alexander II also reformed local government with the establishment of the Zemtvas and Mir. The Zemtvas were local parliaments that were set up in each county and were elected by an electoral college. Transportation, health, selection of jury candidates, education, poverty relief and encouraging agriculture and industrialization were the responsibilities of the Zemtvas.
The Mir, which was also known as the village commune, was established after the abolition of serfs to collect their redemption taxes in the local area, and also the taxes of the citizens who were not newly abolished slaves.
The Mir also had the ability to grant passports to the serfs, and dealt with court cases in which serfs were involved. The legal system was also reformed by Alexander II. Prior to the reforms the accused were presumed guilty until proven innocent and lawyers and juries were absent from the court.
Judges, however, were present but they were often influenced by bribes and other methods of injustice.
Judges also received better salaries to make them resistant to bribes. At the time of the war serfs made up the majority of the army and were forced to serve for 25 years. The army was also very poorly equipped and lacked proper training.
Conscription was introduced and all men medically fit men over the age of twenty were responsible to serve. The time the soldiers had to serve was reduced to 6 years, with 9 years in the reserves, and a following 5 years in the militia. The method of conscription increased the amount of soldiers in the reserve, and also made the solider training more effective and efficient.
Before censorship was reduced all published works would have to be approved by a censor. After the reform, however, the Ministry of Interior became responsible of censorship and created guidelines for writers and editors to ease the approval of their works.
The reform of censorship led to the growth of private schools. Since private schools were often thought of as dangerous as the state had limited control on what they taught, they were made to follow a common curriculum. Universities were also reformed with expanded curriculums and increased opportunity to study abroad.
Financial aid was also provided to student who could not pay their school fees. Though Alexander reformed many things and tried to create what he envisioned as a better Russia, his reforms were not without their faults.
Although the serfs were emancipated, they had less land and the redemption tax they had to pay was often more than what the land was worth. Serfs also had little reason to invest in their land, as part of it could later be taken and redistributed to other serfs when the population expanded.
This also lead the serfs to become less willing to use newer methods of farming, as their land did not belong to them until they finished paying their redemption tax.Diocletian's policies were not really successful: 1) The policy of price controls Diocletian introduced to deal with hyperinflation failed had had to be abandoned.
32 THE NEW-YORK JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY A merican memorymostly with bringing order and respectability to credits Alexander Hamilton the ﬁnances of the new federal government. April marks the th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War, which began when Confederate forces opened fire upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.
Feb 02, · At the start of his reign he hung the assassins of his father and issued the Manifesto Of Unshakeable Autocracy where he showed his determination to rule.
Statute of State Security Gave government emergency powers Increased censorship Set up special courts outside of legal system to hand out harsher punishments Increased power of provincial governors; could.
A chronology of key events: 9th century - Founding of Kievan Rus, the first major East Slavic state. The traditional account, a matter of debate among historians, attributes its founding to the. The reforms of Alexander II and the effects of them Reform of local government () 1.
Certain serfs turned against the Tsar The overall effects of the reforms Reform of the Judiciary (Russia's legal system) Reform of the army ( + ) Reform of education () 1.