With the Convention theoretically applicable in U.
History[ edit ] The issue of minority rights was first raised inat the Congress of Viennawhich discussed the fate of German Jews and especially of the Poles who were once again partitioned up.
The Congress expressed hope that PrussiaRussiaand Austria would grant tolerance and protection to their minorities, which ultimately they disregarded, engaging in organized discrimination.
In Britain, William Gladstone made the massacres of Bulgarians by the Ottoman Empire a major campaign issue and demanded international attention. On the whole, the 19th century congresses failed to impose significant reforms. Russia was especially active in protecting Orthodox Christians and Slavic peoples under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
Persecution or discrimination against specific minorities was increasingly the subject of media attention, and the Jews began to organize to protest the pogroms in Russia.
However, there was little international outrage regarding treatment of other minorities, such as black people in the southern United States.
The first minority rights were proclaimed and enacted by the revolutionary Parliament of Hungary in July All the new successor states were compelled to sign minority rights treaties as a precondition of diplomatic recognition.
It was agreed that although the new states had been recognized, they had not been 'created' before the signatures of the final peace treaties.
The issue of German and Polish rights was a point of dispute as Polish rights in Germany remained unprotected, unlike the German minority in Poland.
Like other principles adopted by the League, the Minorities Treaties were a part of the Wilsonian idealist approach to international relations; like the League itself, the Minority Treaties were increasingly ignored by the respective governments, with the entire system mostly collapsing in the late s.
Despite the political failure, they remained the basis of international law. International law[ edit ] Minority rights, as applying to ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples, are an integral part of international human rights law.
Like children's rightswomen's rights and refugee rights, minority rights are a legal framework designed to ensure that a specific group which is in a vulnerabledisadvantaged or marginalized position in society, is able to achieve equality and is protected from persecution.
The first postwar international treaty to protect minorities, designed to protect them from the greatest threat to their existence, was the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
Minority rights cover protection of existence, protection from discrimination and persecution, protection and promotion of identity, and participation in political life. For the rights of persons with disabilitiesthe Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been adopted by United Nations General Assembly.
There are many political bodies which also feature minority group rights, which might be seen in affirmative action quotas or in guaranteed minority representation in a consociational state.
The EU has relied on general international law and a European regional system of international law based on the Council of EuropeOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europeetc. The political relevance of national minorities' protection is very high.
Nowalthough protection of the national minorities has not become a generally accepted legally binding principle of the EU, in several legal acts issues of national minorities are mentioned.
In external relations protection of national minorities became one of the main criteria for cooperation with the EU or accession.Nov 30, · The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. Rent-Seeking, Public Choice, and The Prisoner's Dilemma. Mankind soon learn to make interested uses of every right and power which they possess, or may assume.
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My father retired from a 30 years in law enforcement and the best advice he gave me (careerwise) was to not make my social circle only the people I work with. Minority groups are those of the "protected class", such as women, groups of different nationalities and religions, and basically any group of people that can be discriminated against.
Minority groups have very little representation compared to the dominant groups and definitely are not as powerful /5(4). Essay Sample Nearly every nation in the world has some form of minority groups from within it. These minority groups aren’t limited to ethnicity, race or religion but can also include language, nationalities, sexual orientation, gender, economic and political groups.