A discussion on instrumental climates and independent climate and the ways to improve them

Index survives until the s. Portuguese Crown gives official approval to begin shipping African slaves to Brazil. It is the first permanent European settlement in North America.

A discussion on instrumental climates and independent climate and the ways to improve them

A discussion on instrumental climates and independent climate and the ways to improve them

How do ice cores work? Current period is at right. From bottom to top: Milankovitch cycles connected to 18O. From top to bottom: Ice sheets have one particularly special property.

They allow us to go back in time and to sample accumulation, air temperature and air chemistry from another time[1]. Ice core records allow us to generate continuous reconstructions of past climate, going back at leastyears[2]. By looking at past concentrations of greenhouse gasses in layers in ice cores, scientists can calculate how modern amounts of carbon dioxide and methane compare to those of the past, and, essentially, compare past concentrations of greenhouse gasses to temperature.

Ice coring has been around since the s. Ice cores have been drilled in ice sheets worldwide, but notably in Greenland[3] and Antarctica[4, 5]. Through analysis of ice cores, scientists learn about glacial-interglacial cycles, changing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and climate stability over the last 10, years.

Many ice cores have been drilled in Antarctica. Antarctic ice core drill sites with depth and record duration. This photograph shows an ice core sample being taken from a drill. This picture shows a traversing field camp from December The team were travelling across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to study snow accumulation.

They spent two nights at each site, first collecting radar data and secondly collecting a 15 m shallow ice core. This schematic cross section of an ice sheet shows an ideal drilling site at the centre of the polar plateau near the ice divide, with ice flowing away from the ice divide in all direction.

The large Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have huge, high plateaux where snow accumulates in an ordered fashion. Slow ice flow at the centre of these ice sheets near the ice divide means that the stratigraphy of the snow and ice is preserved. Drilling a vertical hole through this ice involves a serious effort involving many scientists and technicians, and usually involves a static field camp for a prolonged period of time.

Shallow ice cores m long are easier to collect and can cover up to a few hundred years of accumulation, depending on accumulation rates. Deeper cores require more equipment, and the borehole must be filled with drill fluid to keep it open. The drill fluid used is normally a petroleum-derived liquid like kerosene.Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London.


We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study . The Colorado River basin contains climate zones ranging from alpine to desert and exhibits significant climate variability on a variety of time scales. Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union.

The following lists only discussion papers without a corresponding final revised paper. Extreme droughts and human responses to them: the Czech Lands in the pre-instrumental period.

Rudolf Brázdil, Petr Dobrovolný, Miroslav Trnka, Ladislava. AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture. Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.

Following a lot of input, I've collected some relevant sources for informed discussion: see #Sources: global warming definitions, relation to climate change for these, arranged to invite discussion and further reliable sources when found, plus my initial #Conclusions for discussion.

Model 1 includes all the independent variables that are tested in the present study, which include the emotional intelligence, corporate ethical values, and the five ethical climate types, namely professional, caring, rule-based, instrumental, and independent.

Four Domains of Empowerment Foresight – The Foresight Guide